Laboratory Medicine for Medical Students

Laboratory medicines for medical studentsKniha Laboratory Medicine  for Medical Students vydanie od Gustav Kovac, Anna Porubenova, Katarina Holeckova a kol.


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ISBN 978-80-89631-67-4


Laboratory medicines for medical studentsPrologue

  • Laboratory Medicine - the New Discipline in the Pregradual Study of General Medicine in Slovakia

Clinical Laboratory

  • Notes to the Clinical Laboratory
  • What is Clinical Laboratory?
  • Laboratory Medicine or Clinical Pathology?
  • Laboratory Medicine Departments
  • Staffing
  • Testing
  • Quality
  • ISO Standards & Accreditation Organisations
  • Medical Ethics
  • Legal Issues
  • Notes to the Laboratory Reagents, Equipment and System of Measurement        
    • Laboratory Water
    • Laboratory Plasticware and Glassware
    • Laboratory Balances
    • Laboratory Centrifuges
    • System of Measurement
  • Notes to the Solution Preparation        
    • Density and Specific Gravity
    • Expression of Solution Concentrations
    • Concentrations of Solutions
    • Dilutions
  • Notes to the Techniques in the Clinical Laboratory
    • Notes to the Photometry
    • Notes to the Nephelometry
    • Notes to the Electrochemical Methods
    • Notes to the Immunofluorescence Labeling Techniques
    • Notes to the Chromatography
    • Notes to the Reflectance Spectrophotometry
    • Notes to the Analytical Techniques for Point-of-Care-Testing
    • Notes to the Flow Cytometry
    • Notes to the Molecular Techniques
  • Notes to the Clinical Laboratory Automation        
    • Automated Analyzers
    • Automated Leucocyte Differentiation
    • Molecular Testing
  • Notes to the Quality Assessment        
    • Quality Assessment  Frame
    • Quality Assessment Descriptors
    • Quality Control Statistics
    • Monitoring Quality Control
    • Error Analysis
    • Lean and Six Sigma
    • Testing Outcomes


Laboratory Specialties

  • Notes to the Clinical Chemistry        
    • Notes to the Glucose Testing       
      • Clinical Aspects
    • Laboratory Aspects
    • Notes to the Lipid Testing
    • Notes to the Electrolytes Testing       
      • Clinical Aspects
      • Laboratory Aspects
      • Other Electrolytes
      • Reference Values
    • Notes to the Acid Base Balance and Blood Gases Testing       
      • Laboratory Aspects
      • Clinical Aspects
    • Notes to the Uric Acid Testing       
      • Clinical and Laboratory Aspects
    • Notes to the Ammonia Testing       
      • Clinical and Laboratory Aspects
    • Notes to the Cardiac Disease Testing       
      • Clinical and Laboratory Aspects
    • Notes to the Liver and Pancreatic Testing
    • Notes to the Renal Function Testing
      • Clinical and Laboratory Aspects
      • An Example of Hormones Testing
    • Notes to the Tumor Markers Testing
      • General Aspects
      • Specific Markers
    • Notes to the Toxicological Testing
      • Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
      • Drugs of Abuse
  • Notes to the Hematology Testing       
    • Introductory Notes
    • Notes to the Blood Cell Development
    • Notes to the Clinical Hematology
    • Notes to the Hemoglobin Testing
    • Notes to the Hematocrit Testing
    • Notes to the Red Blood Cell Indices
    • Notes to the Blood Cell Count
    • Notes to the Examination of the Peripheral Blood Film
    • Notes to the Additional Hematology Procedures
    • Notes to the Coagulation Testing
    • Notes to the Hemostatic Mechanisms
    • Notes to the Quantitative Platelet Disorders
  • Notes to the Coagulation       
    • Notes to the Pathways for Coagulation Cascade
    • Notes to the Fibrinolysis
    • Notes to the Normal Protective Mechanisms against Thrombosis
    • Notes to the Tests for Hemostasis and Coagulation
  • Notes to the Laboratory Testing in Transfusion Medicine        
      • Notes to the General Aspects
      • Basic Terms
      • Whole Blood
      • Antigens and Antibodies in Immunohematology
      • ABO Blood Group System
      • Rh Blood Group System
      • Other Blood Group Systems
      • Antihuman Globulin Reaction
    • Notes to the Methodological Aspects
      • Means of Detecting Antigen-Antibody Reactions
      • ABO Typing Procedures
      • Types of Rh Typing Reagents (Antisera)
      • Coombs´Test
    • Notes to the Clinical Context
      • Blood Donation
      • Other Types of Blood Donations
      • Compatibility Testing and Crossmatching
      • Hemolytic Disease of the Fetus and Newborn (HDFN)
  • Notes to the Laboratory Testing in Clinical Immunology        
    • Notes to the Basic Functions of the Immune System
    • Notes to the Specimens in Clinical Immunology
    • Notes to the Principles of Immunologic and Serologic Methods
      • Notes to the Agglutination
      • Notes to the Labeling Techniques
      • Notes to the Molecular Techniques
      • Notes to the POCT in Clinical Immunology
  • Notes to the Testing in the Clinical Microbiology        
    • Introductory Notes
    • Notes to the Specimens  and Cultures
      • Notes to the Urine Cultures
      • Notes to the Throat Cultures
      • Notes to the Genitourinary Cultures
      • Notes to the Blood Cultures
    • Notes to the Testing in Bacteriology
    • Notes to the Testing in Mycology
    • Notes to the Testing in Parasitology
    • Notes to Some Specific Aspects of Clinical Microbiology Testing
      • Basic Equipment and Techniques
      • Notes to the Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests
      • Notes to the Quality Control in the Microbiology Laboratory
      • Notes to the Protection of Laboratory Personnel
  • Notes to the Body Fluids Testing       
    • Introductory Notes
    • Notes to the Pericardial, Pleural and Peritoneal Fluid Testing
    • Notes to the Synovial Fluid (SF) Testing
    • Notes to the Seminal Fluid
    • Notes to the Amniotic Fluid
    • Notes to the Saliva

Shared Activities
Notes to the Urinanalysis

  • Notes to the Composition of Urine
  • Notes to the Collection and Preservation of Urine Specimens
  • Notes to the Chemical Tests in Routine Urinanalysis
  • Notes to the Microscopic Analysis of Urine Sediment
  • Notes to the Constituents of Urine Sediment
  • Review of Urinanalysis
  • Appendix
  • Renal Anatomy and Physiology
  • Notes to the Phlebotomy       
    • Notes to the Specimen Collection
    • Notes to the Specimen General Preparation
    • Notes to the Venous Blood Collection
    • Notes to the Capillary Blood Collection
    • Infection Control
    • Quality Assessment
    • Chain of Custody Specimen Information
  • Notes to the the Microscope        
    • Notes to the Description
    • Notes to the Parts of the Microscope
    • Notes to the Care and Cleaning of the Microscope
    • Use of the Microscope
    • Other Types of Microscope
    • Digital Imaging
  • Notes to the Point of Care Testing        
    • Introductory Notes
    • Notes to the Use in the Clinical Practice
  • Notes to the Safety        
    • Notes to the Basic First Aid Procedures
    • Notes to the Infection Control
    • Notes to the Prevention
    • Notes to the Laboratory Hazards
    • Notes to the Final Decontamination
    • Notes to the Safety Standards
  • Notes to the Clinical Laboratory Information System       
    • Overview of Laboratory Information Management Systems
    • Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information
    • Future Considerations
  • Notes to Mathemathics        
    • Significant Figures
    • Exponents
    • Proportions and Ratios

 

Epilogue

  • From Monovalency to Polyvalency - The Slovak Experience

Laboratory Medicine - the New Discipline in the Pregradual Study of General Medicine in Slovakia Laboratory Medicine was introduced in the pregradual study of General Medicine at Slovak Medical University in the school year 2016/2017 by Vice Dean ass. prof. MUDr. Katarina Holeckova PhD. It is for the first time ever for the Slovak Republic.

Laboratory Medicine is part of the education of general medicine in the 4th school year – in both formats - lectures and seminars / demonstrations - in the Slovak and English language.

The study is completed by the final exam. Lectures and seminars are based on the monography “Clinical Laboratory Science“ written and edited by Mary Louise Turgeon, issued by Elsevier and Mosby in 2012. The monography has more than 600 pages.

Though the above mentioned monography was at disposal for students as a general source, the need for shorter version was strongly demanded by the students. This one was prepared and worked out by prof. MUDr. RNDr. Gustav Kovac CSc MBA (specialist in laboratory medicine, clinical chemistry and internal medicine) and MUDr. Anna Porubenova MPH (specialist in laboratory medicine and for organisation of the health care): both accountable for running lectures and seminars in this new pregradual discipline.

The issue of medicine was reviewed, complemented and adjusted by ass.prof. MUDr. Katarina Holeckova PhD (specialist in pediatrics and infectology), MUDr. Katarina Cerna MHA (specialist in internal medicine, diabetology and social medicine) and MUDr. Beata Havelkova MPH (specialist in internal medicine and for health insurance).

The issue of laboratory was reviewed, complemented and adjusted by ass.prof. dipl. Ing. Pavel Blazicek CSc (specialist in laboratory medicine and clinical chemistry), MUDr. Monika Drakulova (specialist in hematology, laboratory medicine and pediatrics), Dipl. Ing. Michal Farkas (specialist in laboratory medicine and clinical chemistry), Pharm.Dr. Anna Keleova CSc (specialist in clinical immunology and allergology), MUDr. Daniel Kuba PhD (specialist in clinical immunology and alergology), ass. prof. MUDr. Michal Ondrejcak CSc (specialist in clinical genetics, obstetrics and gynaecology), and ass. prof. RNDr. Jan Trupl CSc (specialist in clinical microbiology).

In comparison with „Clinical Laboratory Science“ written and edited by Mary Louise Turgeon which we consider as the main source for our students and as a base for this document
• is shorter (the text includes 160 pages and 22 chapters),
• in general hierarchy as well as in some chapters restructured and complemented,
• in global architecture other priorities have been set.

The main goal of this document is to offer targeted comments to the lectures: the document could be considered as an extended syllabus as well. We strongly recommend to use it as a supportive tool helping „to keep the line and orientation“ in the process of the study of other textbooks and monographies.

All authors deserve recognition for being in time, concise and clear. Thanks dr. Milan Lehky Junior, who was the editor for this book. Working with him is pleasure.

 

Gustav Kovac, Anna Porubenova, Katarina Holeckova