proglas-1998

2 K O N ‰ T A N T Í N F I L O Z O F Zo staroslovienãiny preloÏil univ. prof. PhDr. Eugen Pauliny a prebásnil PhDr. Viliam Turãány Úvod napísal Ján Chryzostom kardinál Korec Doslov a Poznámky napísal PhDr. Viliam Turãány Do angliãtiny preloÏila Mgr. Michaela Chorváthová Recenzovali doc. PhDr. Milan Rúfus a prof. PhDr. ThDr. ·tefan Vraga‰ Ilustroval Akad. mal. MikulበKlimãák Graficky upravil Akad. mal. Stanislav Stankoci Translated from the Old Slavonic into modern Slovak by Prof. Eugen Pauliny, PhD and Viliam Turãány, PhD Foreword by Ján Chryzostom Cardinal Korec Afterword and Comments by Viliam Turãány, PhD Translated into English by Michaela Chorváthová, MA Reviewers Assoc. Prof. Milan Rúfus, PhD and Prof. ·tefan Vraga‰, PhD, DD Illustrated by MikulበKlimãák, MA Graphic Design Stanislav Stankoci, MA Issued by © HERBA, spol. s r. o., 1998 Translation © Eugen Pauliny, Viliam Turãány 1998 © Prologue Ján Chryzostom Cardinal Korec, 1998 © Epilogue Viliam Turãány, 1998 Translation into English © Michaela Chorváthová, MA, 1998 Ilustration © MikulበKlimãák, MA, 1998 ISBN 80–967994–0–1

3 P R O G L A S Obsah Ján Chryzostom kardinál Korec Predslov k Proglasu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Kon‰tantín Filozof (Sv. Cyril) Proglas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Viliam Turãány Ten, ktor˘ stále miloval múdrosÈ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Viliam Turãány Poznámky k hlaholike a umeleckej stavbe Proglasu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Cont ent s Ján Chryzostom Cardinal Korec Foreword to Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Constantine the Philosopher Proglas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Viliam Turãány The one who always loved wisdom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Viliam Turãány Comments on Glagolica and poetic structure of Proglas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

6 K O N ‰ T A N T Í N F I L O Z O F P R E D S L O V K P RO G L A S U Keì sv. Cyril a Metod pri svojom príchode na Veºkú Moravu roku 863 priniesli dar Svätého písma, Cirkev mala uÏ za sebou stároãia Ïivota z tohto BoÏieho slova. V ·panielsku mala okolo tridsaÈ diecéz, v Gallii rovnaké mnoÏstvo. V Británii a v Írsku zapustila Cirkev uÏ hlboké korene. V Nemecku pôsobili poÏehnane írski misionári – sv. Kolumbán a sv. Bonifác. Hoci Taliansko bolo niãené gótskymi vojnami, Rím ostával duchovn˘m stredom sveta. No Carihrad bol omnoho väã‰í, mal vojská a bohatstvo, staviteºov a umelcov a najmä ‰koly v‰etk˘ch odvetví, aj filozofiu a teológiu. Vládla tu bohatá tradícia vzdelanosti. Do gréckej literatúry patrili po Tukydidovi a Platónovi aj sv. Atanáz, Ján Zlatoústy a Bazil, ktorí ‰tudovali v Aténach i v Carihrade. Na západe pôsobili uÏ dlho svojím dielom sv. Irenej z Lyonu v Gallii, Hieronym, Augustín a synovia sv. Benedikta. Cez Karola Veºkého prenikla k nám kultúra Západu. A cez sv. Cyrila a Metoda sa k nám dostalo bohatstvo V˘chodu z Carihradu. Keì sv. Cyril a Metod priná‰ali na Veºkú Moravu staroslovienske písmo a darovali na‰im predkom preklad Starého i Nového zákona, vedeli, ak˘ poklad nám darujú. My sme dnes zavaºovaní tisícami kníh, z ktor˘ch mnohé sú bezcenné, bez oÏivujúcej my‰lienky, alebo ponúkajú len byºky a bledé stopy múdrosti. Pred stároãiami si ºudia ctili jednu knihu nad v‰etky poklady sveta. Nazvali ju Knihou - Bibliou. V nej nachádzali zhustenú múdrosÈ Ïivota. Ctili si v nej knihu silnú a iskriacu hæbkou my‰lienok, jedineãnú v celej svetovej literatúre, ktorá formovala Ïivot národov a ich kultúru. Cirkev kládla Sv. písmo na oltár ako BoÏie slovo. Na Písmo sa skladali slávnostné prísahy. Táto úcta trvá stále dodnes. Keì sa ãíta v chrámoch evanjelium, veriaci z úcty povstanú, kÀaz ho ãíta uprostred horiacich sviec a uprostred vonného tymiánu. Po preãítaní evanjelium pobozká. Vo viere Cirkvi cez Písmo hovorí sám Kristus. Láska k Písmu je láskou k Nemu. Preto najvzácnej‰ie dary prírody a schopnosti umelcov slúÏili od pradávna na oslavu Písma. Jeho text bol písan˘ na najjemnej‰om pergamene, krásnym ozdobn˘m písmom, ãasto zlatou a striebornou farbou. Mená JeÏi‰ a Boh boli písané ãasto zlatom. Úctu a lásku k Písmu prezrádzali aj prekrásne väzby kódexov, ozdobené slonovou kosÈou a drah˘mi kameÀmi. Keì sv. Cyril a Metod mali preloÏen˘ Nov˘ zákon, najmä evanjeliá, pravdepodobne sv. Cyril, ãiÏe Kon‰tantín Filozof, uviedol toto veºdielo ducha celkom osobne tzv. „Proglasom“. Je to „Predslov k svätému evanjeliu“ – krásna báseÀ, literárny skvost na samom zaãiatku na‰ej kultúry. JÁN CHRYZOSTOM KARDINÁL KOREC biskup Nitrianskej diecézy na Slovensku, najstar‰ej diecézy strednej a v˘chodnej Európy, zaloÏenej r. 880

7 P R O G L A S Ako nám dávno sºubovali proroci, Kristus prichádza zhromaÏdiÈ národy, lebo je svetlom tohto sveta ... ... Preto ãujte, Slovieni, toto: Dar tento je naozaj od Boha dan˘ ... dar BoÏí du‰iam, nikdy nehynúci, t˘m du‰iam, ktoré ho prijímajú. Matú‰ s Markom, Luká‰om a Jánom uãia v‰etok ºud a vravia: ... ãujÏe, v‰etok ºud sloviensky, ãujte Slovo, od Boha pri‰lé, slovo Ïiviace ºudské du‰e ... âo to musela byÈ za revolúcia ducha, keì Kon‰tantín a Metod pri‰li do na‰ej krajiny, na Veºkú Moravu, do Nitry a na Devín s knihami preloÏen˘mi do na‰ej reãi a keì zhromaÏdili v˘kvet na‰ich mlad˘ch ºudí na svoju vysokú ‰kolu a tam ich v zrozumiteºnom jazyku vzdelávali vo filozofii, v matematike, hudbe, v poznávaní Písma, jeho hæbok a tajomstiev, a keì potom spolu s nimi slávili „sluÏbu - om‰u“ po sloviensky! Písmo, ktoré priniesli, sa stalo základomkultúry u nás i v mnoh˘ch ìal‰ích slovansk˘ch krajinách. Bol topoklad nad striebro a zlato. Ním sa uskutoãnilo to, ão napísal cisár Michal III. v liste Rastislavovi, v ktorom hovorí o „nov˘ch písmenách pre jazyk vበ... aby ste sa aj vy pripoãítali k národom veºk˘m ...“. Slová Sv. písma a bohosluÏobn˘ch kníh v staroslovienãine sa stali Ïiv˘m a pouÏívan˘m literárnym jazykom. Sv. Cyril a Metod dosiahli nesl˘chanú vec – staroslovienãina sa stala popri gréãtine, latinãine a hebrejãine ‰tvrt˘m liturgick˘m, bohosluÏobn˘m jazykom Cirkvi a o nejak˘ ãas jazykom kvitnúcej literatúry. V „Îivote Metoda“ ãítame, ão sa dialo v Ríme roku 867 za pápeÏa Hadriána II., ktor˘ prijal svät˘ch bratov aj s ich poãetn˘mi Ïiakmi: „Hadrián poÏehnal ich uãenie a poloÏil slovienske evanjelium na oltár svätého Petra apo‰tola.“ V „Îivote Kon‰tantína“ sa dopæÀa: „PápeÏ prijal slovienske knihy, posvätil ich a poloÏil v chráme ... a spievali nad nimi svätú liturgiu. Potom kázal ... vysvätiÈ slovienskych uãeníkov. A ako ich vysvätil, hneì spievali liturgiu v chráme svätého Petra apo‰tola slovienskym jazykom ... a celú noc spievali chválospevy po sloviensky ...“ Nበbásnik uprel pohºad na Slovo, ktoré bolo na poãiatku ná‰ho národného Ïivota a z ktorého národ Ïil po generácie: „Zdedené Slovo zachovaj nám, Pane, veì na tej manne kvitli, zarodili, z nej sali sily a z nej ãerpaÈ budú mládniky ºudu cez pokolenia aj cez trudné veky ...“

8 K O N ‰ T A N T Í N F I L O Z O F Aké my‰lienky sa z tohto základua pokladuvyjadrovali potom uprostred Ïivota na‰ich predkov! V „Îivote Kon‰tantínovom“ nachádzame túto jeho modlitbu: „Pane, BoÏe môj ... ktor˘ si nebo vystrel a zem si zaloÏil a v‰etko jestvujúce z nebytia v bytie priviedol a ktor˘ vÏdy vysly‰iava‰ t˘ch, ão plnia tvoju vôºu ... a zachovávajú tvoje príkazy, vysly‰ moju modlitbu ...“ Na‰ou mannou na pú‰ti bolo od prvej chvíle Slovo evanjelia. Toto slovo, i keì sa neskôr pre nepriazeÀ okolností nepouÏívalo priamo u nás v liturgii v‰eobecne, udrÏiavalo sa neuveriteºn˘m spôsobom uprostred svojich dediãov v˘chodného obradu, oÏivované stykmi s in˘mi slovansk˘mi národmi a vteºované do na‰ich chrámov˘ch piesní, znejúcich u nás po stároãia. Keì odborníci charakterizovali obsahovú stránku „Proglasu“ ãiÏe Predspevu k evanjeliu, vystihli ho ako nadãasov˘ a priam „vá‰niv˘ poetick˘ chválospev na slovansk˘ preklad Písma“. V „Proglase“ je zhrnutá Kon‰tantínova filozofia ãloveka. V tomto pohºade ãlovek chápe Slovo a z neho ako inteligentná bytosÈ Ïije, Ïiví si ním du‰u, posilÀuje si t˘mto Slovom srdce a uznáva Boha za základ a Ïriedlo sveta i svojho Ïivota. âlovek si musí osvojiÈ znalosÈ „písmen“, aby sa cez kniÏnú kultúru pozdvihol k „Zákonu BoÏiemu“ – k Ïivotu ducha. Odborníci nazvali Kon‰tantínov „Proglas“ jedineãn˘m básnick˘m dielom s mohutnou ‰írkou ducha, s vrúcnym nad‰ením slova, so záºubou obrazne pribliÏovaÈ pravdy a tajomstvá, a to s veºk˘m zmyslom pre krásu reãi. Znalec staroslovienskej a in˘ch dobov˘ch literatúr napísal, Ïe v nijakej inej literatúre t˘ch dávnych ãias a e‰te dlho po nich nenachádzame podobnú nad‰enú v˘zvu národu, aby dbal o knihy vo svojej reãi: „Proglas“ ukazuje, akú vysokú literárnu úroveÀ dosiahla hneì na samom zaãiatku spisovná staroslovienãina aj ako básnick˘ jazyk, a to v ãase, keì u väã‰iny vtedaj‰ích národov Európy nebolo e‰te takmer nijakého prejavu umelecky nároãnej poézie v národn˘ch jazykoch. Je priam potrebné dnes zdôrazniÈ, Ïe vynájdenie staroslovienskeho písma nebolo len v‰eobecn˘m kultúrnym ãinom. Bol to ãin duchovn˘ a vyslovene kresÈansk˘. Do staroslovienãiny bolo preloÏené v prvom rade Sv. písmo a bohosluÏobné knihy. AÏ potom vznikli spisy právnické a iné. A len v súvislosti s vierou vzniklo aj prvé literárno-umelecké dielo, prekrásna báseÀ Proglas. Nová abeceda mala stáÈ v prvom rade v sluÏbách viery a kresÈanského Ïivota. V „Îivote Kon‰tantínovom“ ãítame slová cisára Michala Rastislavovi: „Pousiluj sa ... z celého srdca hºadaÈ Boha ... a v‰etk˘ch povzbuì, aby ... nastúpili cestu pravdy ..., aby si aj ty prijal odmenu za to v tomto i budúcom Ïivote za v‰etky du‰e, ão uveria v Krista ... Zanechበpamiatku svoju budúcim rodom podobne ako veºk˘ cisár Kon‰tantín“.

9 P R O G L A S Na‰ím duchovn˘m pokladom bolo teda od prvej chvíle Slovo evanjelia. I keì sa u nás pouÏívalo v liturgii len v malej miere, predsa uprostred nás Ïilo, vteºovalo sa do chrámov˘ch piesní, do prísloví a porekadiel a do ºudovej tvorivosti po stároãia. My sa dnes p˘tame: Ako mohol Kon‰tantín Filozof napísaÈ takú pravdivú a aj literárne a umelecky pôsobivú báseÀ, akou je „Proglas ãiÏe Predslov k sv. Evanjeliu“? Fra Angelico vraj raz povedal: „Kto chce maºovaÈ Krista, musí s ním ÏiÈ ...“ To, ão Kon‰tantín vyslovil v Proglase, to aj Ïil - evanjelium a JeÏi‰a Krista. V „Îivote Kon‰tantína“ ãítame o jeho misii u Kozárov, ktorá bola veºmi plodná: „Keì Kagan odprevádzal Filozofa, dával mu mnohé dary. Ale on ich neprijal a hovoril: Daj mi koºko len mበtu zajat˘ch Grékov, to mi je viac ako v‰etky dary. ZhromaÏdili ich do dvesto a dali mu ich. I pobral sa naradosten˘ svojou cestou“. Tak˘to prejav lásky nebol vo vtedaj‰om svete vôbec samozrejm˘. Bola to novosÈ Evanjelia. Autor prekrásneho Proglasu Ïil ustaviãne touto novosÈou. Ohlasoval Krista nielen slovom, ale Ïivotom a ãinmi. Rovnak˘m prejavom kresÈanskej lásky dosvedãil krásu svojej du‰e a osobnosti za svojho pobytu u Pribinovho syna Koceºa. V „Îivote Kon‰tantína“ o tom ãítame: „Koceº si obºúbil slovienske knihy veºmi a nauãil sa im a dal mu do päÈdesiat uãeníkov tieÏ uãiÈ sa im. Preukázal mu veºkú úctu a vyprevadil ho. A nevzal ani od Rastislava ani od Koceºa ani zlato ani striebro ani iné veci a predniesol slovo evanjelia bez pláce. Vyprosil si len deväÈsto zajatcov od oboch a prepustil ich“. Toto bol duch a du‰a „Proglasu“. Toto bola kresÈanská láska a odpú‰Èanie, ktoré Cirkev nielen ohlasovala, ale ktoré cez svojich opravdiv˘ch veriacich aj uskutoãÀovala a ‰írila. U nás i v‰ade vo svete znejú veriacim slová „Proglasu“ aj dnes svieÏo a Ïivotne: „Kristus prichádza zhromaÏdiÈ národy, lebo je svetlom tohto sveta“. Tieto slová boli napísané nedlho po roku 863. A my dne‰ní sme poãuli ozvenu t˘chto slov roku 1995 v Nitre, keì nástupca apo‰tola Petra Ján Pavol II. hovoril mlad˘m chapcom a dievãatám pri svojej náv‰teve Slovenska: „Drahí chlapci a dievãatá!... Kristus, BoÏí Syn a Vykupiteº ãloveka, naplno odpovedá najr˘dzej‰ím túÏbam ºudského srdca. On pri‰iel, aby sme mali Ïivot v hojnosti (Jn 10, 10). On má „slová veãného Ïivota“ (Jn 6, 68). On je „Cesta, Pravda a Îivot“ (Jn 14, 6). „Proglas“ nám stále hovorí: „âujte teraz svojím rozumom, ãujÏe v‰etok ºud sloviensky, ãujte Slovo od Boha pri‰lé, slovo Ïiviace ºudské du‰e ... KaÏdá du‰a prestáva ÏiÈ, ak nemá v sebe Ïivota boÏieho ... Preto ãujte Slovieni toto: Dar tento je naozaj od Boha dan˘ ... Matú‰ s Markom, Luká‰om a Jánom ...“ - A v Nitre, v ktorej bol prv˘ kresÈansk˘ chrám od ãias Pribinov˘ch roku 828 a prvá diecéza Cirkvi od roku 880, zazneli pred tristotisícov˘m

10 K O N ‰ T A N T Í N F I L O Z O F zástupom mlad˘ch tie isté slová z úst Petrovho nástupcu: „Drahí priatelia, uvedomte si, ak˘ neoceniteºn˘ je dar, ktor˘ ste dostali od Boha. Dostal sa k vám po dlhej ceste generácií od ãias svätého Cyrila a Metoda. Prijmite ho v zodpovednej slobode a usilovne ho zveºaìujte.“ PápeÏ Ján Pavol II. vyhlásil Apo‰tolsk˘m listom zo dÀa 31. decembra 1980 sv. Cyrila a Metoda za spolupatrónov Európy – spolu so sv. Benediktom. Od t˘ch ãias je Kon‰tantín Filozof znova blízky celej kresÈanskej Európe, ba i ostatn˘m kontinentom, kde si ho Ïivo pripomínajú. Nech uÏ historici bádajú, kto je skutoãn˘m autorom „Proglasu“, pre mnoh˘ch je ním s istotou Kon‰tantín-Filozof, pre in˘ch je istotne duchovn˘m otcom tejto básne, ktorá vyjadruje jeho ducha, jeho srdce i jeho vzdelanie a básnického génia, a to hæbkou my‰lienok, apo‰tolsk˘m zanietením i obraznou reãou. Obrazná reã Proglasu je tá istá, aké boli jeho rozhovory u Kozárov, ãi jeho v˘razy „písaÈ na vodu“ a iné v di‰putách v Benátkach. Kon‰tantín-Filozof je takto prítomn˘ cez svoj „Proglas“ na Slovensku, v Európe i vo svete. A my ho ãítame, ako by nám Kon‰tantín-Filozof aj dnes privolával: „Kristus prichádza zhromaÏdiÈ národy ...“ ZhromaÏìoval ich po stároãia, aj keì mu ºudia, i jeho vlastní ºudia v tom prekáÏali. A chce zhromaÏìovaÈ národy v porozumení a v láske, aj keì mu v tom znova a takmer stále prekáÏame. A tak Ïijeme v nádeji i v biede, v biede i v nádeji. My na Slovensku zvlá‰È ostro chápeme slová „Proglasu“ - po veºkom prenasledovaní Krista v na‰om národe - ako je to s „kaÏdou du‰ou“, ktorá „bez kníh v ºuìoch m⁄tvou sa javí ...“ – Ako otrasne sme to preÏívali - vo väzeniach, v gulagoch, predt˘m v plynov˘ch komorách ... Du‰e bez zákona BoÏieho boli m⁄tve, ale boli aj zloãinné. Koºko m⁄tvych du‰í má i dnes svet i na‰a Európa ... AÏ sa hrozíme ... Kristus visí na Golgote. LeÏí vyhosten˘ za Betlehemom. On, Cesta, Pravda a Îivot. Akí sú niektorí ºudia voãi nemu nepriateºskí ... Nበbásnik zvolal: „V‰ade sa trasú hrôzou stromy, múry, ako by v‰ade oÏil Herodes ...“ – Kto zhromaÏdí národy, ak nie Kristus - Pravda a Îivot? Keì v‰ak vykáÏeme Krista, ão s nami bude? In˘ nበbásnik si to uvedomoval a priam vykríkol: „Nie, neodchádzaj z Európy, Pane !“ Sme moÏno ojedinel˘m národom v Európe a vo svete, ktor˘ má v ‰tátnom znaku kríÏ a v preambule Ústavy odkaz na historické, kresÈanské a cyrilometodské pravdy a hodnoty Ïivota. Dnes po dosiahnutí slobody v Slovenskej republike sa ãasto obzeráme a p˘tame sa, ão máme robiÈ, o koho sa oprieÈ, na koho sa spoºahnúÈ. Preão sa obzeráme? Máme v‰etko, aby sme sa mohli zdravo rozvíjaÈ. NበÏivot sa môÏe zveºaìovaÈ len priãinením nás sam˘ch, na‰ou prácou a spoluprácou. V slovenskom národe sa za tisíc rokov rozvinula neuveriteºne rozkonárená a kvitnúca kultúra. Vyrastala zo Ïivotov na‰ich otcov a matiek, synov a dcér, z ich du‰e a srdca, z ich lásky a obetavosti, ktoré boli Ïivené v chrámoch i mimo nich modlitbou, boÏím slovom a milosÈou. Îili a rástli „rastom boÏím“, ako sa hovorí v „Proglase“. Takto Ïili profesori a poslucháãi, keì bola roku 1465 zaloÏená

11 P R O G L A S univerzita „Academia Istropolitana“ v Bratislave, takto Ïili na‰i ºudia na Trnavskej univerzite od roku 1635. Takto Ïili na‰i veºkí ºudia Bernolák, Holl˘, Moyzes, Kuzmány, ·túr, Sládkoviã, Radlinsk˘, básnici a vedci cez generácie. A my dnes? Z nás sam˘ch sa musí i dnes rozvíjaÈ Slovensko „rastom boÏím“. A z nás sam˘ch musí takto rásÈ i na‰a budúcnosÈ. Ako obrazne povedal nበbásnik, semienko dejov, údelov, osudov a budúcnosti neklíãi mimo nás, ale v nás – v jednotlivcoch, rodinách i v národe, v ‰kolách, na poli, v továrni, v celom Ïivote. Ako nás uisÈuje „Proglas“: „Kto prijme tieto knihy, tomu Kristus múdrosÈ vyjaví a du‰e va‰e posilní ...“ – Slovensko má moÏnosÈ byÈ Slovenskom pokojn˘m, tvoriv˘m a ‰Èastn˘m. A má ão ponúknuÈ aj in˘m národom. Nitra, 15. mája 1996

12 K O N ‰ T A N T Í N F I L O Z O F F OR EWORD T O F OR EWORD When SS Cyril and Methodius arrived in Great Moravia in 863, with the gift of the Holy Scriptures, the Church had been living in the spirit of God’s Word for centuries. There were about 30 dioceses in Spain and an equal number in Gaul. In Britain and Ireland the Church had established a strong foothold and Germany felt the blessings of the activities of Irish missionaries St Columban and St Boniface. Although Italy was being destroyed by the wars with the Goths, Rome remained the spiritual centre of the world. But Constantinople was much bigger. It had armies and wealth, architects and artists, it had theologists and philosophers and above all Constantinople had a rich tradition of academic life and education. Greek literature was after Thucydides and Plato enriched also by SS Athanasius, John Chrysostom and Basil who apart from Athens studied in Constantinople too. St Irenaeus of Lyon in Gaul, Hieronymus, Augustine and the sons of St Benedict had, through their works, great influence on the west. This culture reached Slovakia via Charlemagne, and our forefathers became acquainted with the riches of the East from Constantinople through SS Cyril and Methodius. When SS Cyril and Methodius brought to Great Moravia the Old Slavonic alphabet and the translation of both the Old and New Testament, they were aware of the value of their gift. Nowadays we are inundated by books that are of no value, which carry no ideas, or just tiny bits and faint traces of wisdom. But centuries ago one book was above all the treasures of the Earth. It was called the Book-or the Bible. There people could find the essence of wisdom. They honoured this book, so strong and brilliant in its wisdom, unique in the context of the world’s literature. This book formed the life of nations and their cultures. The Church placed the Holy Scriptures at the altar as the Word of God. Ceremonial oaths were made upon it. This reverence is still there. When the Gospels are read in the church amidst burning candles and incense people stand up. After the reading the Gospels are kissed by the priest. According to the Church it is Christ himself who talks through the Bible. The love of the Scriptures is love of Him. For centuries the most precious gifts of nature were used and the most skilful artists were called to celebrate the Scriptures. The text was written on the finest parchment often in gold or silver calligraphic letters. The names of God and Jesus were often written in gold. The cover of the Scriptures, ornamented with ivory and gems, spoke of love and reverence of the Scriptures. JÁN CHRYZOSTOM CARDINAL KOREC Bishop of the Nitra diocese in Slovakia the oldest diocese in Central and Eastern Europe, founded in 880

13 P R O G L A S After SS Cyril and Methodius had finished their translation of the New Testament, especially of the Gospels, it was probably St Cyril, then called Constantine the Philosopher, who then introduced this spiritual masterpiece in a very special way-with the so-called “Proglas”. It is a “Foreword to the Holy Scriptures”-a wonderful poem, a literary jewel that stands at the very beginning of our culture. ...“for as it was promised by the prophets Christ comes to gather the nations for He is the Light of this world... ......Verily I say unto you, Slovienes this gift is indeed a gift from God ...a gift to souls, a gift that never perishes a gift to all the souls that accept it. ...Matthew and Mark, Luke and John teach all the nations saying: ...Hear! Listen to the voice of your reason hear you, the whole Slovien nation hear the Word, sent by the Lord Word that feeds hungry human souls...“ The arrival of Constantine and Methodius in Great Moravia must have been a true spiritual revolution. They came to Nitra and to Devín with books translated in our language, they gathered the best of our youth at their academy and gave them education in philosophy, mathematics and music. They taught them how to study the Bible and how to understand its mysteries – all in a language they understood. And at the end, they celebrated the “service-mass” in Old Slavonic, together! The script they brought became the basis of Slovak and other Slavonic cultures. It was a treasure more precious then gold and silver. This script made a reality the hope that the Emperor Michael III expressed in a letter to Prince Rastislav, in which he spoke of “a new script for your language ... so that you too are counted among the great nations”. The words from the Scriptures and liturgical books became in the Old Slavonic a living and functional language of literature. SS Cyril and Methodius achieved a success that was unheard of – Old Slavonic became the fourth liturgical language just like Greek, Latin, and Hebrew. Later it also became the language of a flourishing literature. In “The Life of Methodius” we read what happened in Rome in 867 after Pope Hadrian II received the Holy Brothers together with their disciples: ”Hadrian blessed their teachings, put the Gospels in Slavonic at the altar of St Peter the Apostle. ’In‘ The Life of Constantine“ it is said: ”The Pope accepted Slavonic books, blessed them, laid them in the church ...

14 K O N ‰ T A N T Í N F I L O Z O F and holy liturgy was sung upon them. Then he ordered the Slovien disciples to be ordained. And after they were ordained they sang the liturgy in the Church of St Peter the Apostle in Slavonic ...and they sang praises the whole night long ...“ Our poet looked at the Word that was at the beginning of the life of our nation and that was its strength for generations: ”O, Lord preserve the word of our fathers, for that was the manna on which our youth flourished and gave fruit, that was the manna that gave and will give our people power to grow, even when hit by hard times ...“ Look at the ideas that were considered central in the lives of our forefathers. This is a prayer that we can find in ”The Life of Constantine:“ ”My Lord and my God you extended the sky and laid the earth, you made everything out of nothing you always hear those that obey your will and your commandments. Hear my prayer ...“ From the beginning our manna in the desert was the word of the Gospels. This word, which later, due to unfavourable circumstances, was not used directly on our territory, was in an astonishing way preserved among the heirs of eastern liturgy, kept alive though the contacts with other Slavonic languages and incorporated in church songs that were sung here for centuries. Literary scholars characterised ”Proglas“, or the Foreword to the Gospels as a universal and ”passionate poetic celebration of Slavonic translation of the Scriptures.“ In ”Proglas“ we can find the essence of Constatnine’s philosophy. In his view man as a intelligent creature is able to understand the Word. It nourishes his soul, it is the source of his strength, as God is the basis, and the source of everyone’s existence. Man must gain knowledge of the “letters”, of the script, in order to find his way to the “Law of God”, to spiritual life. Critics dubbed ”Proglas” a ”unique piece of poetry, a fervent praise of the Word, written with an exquisite sense for the beauty of the word and a gift to explain the truth and mysteries through metaphors and images.“ A connoisseur of Old Slavonic and other literatures of that time, wrote that such an invocation to a nation to cherish books written in its own language is absolutely unique. ”Proglas“ demonstrates the high level that Old Slavonic reached in the field of poetry from its beginnings. This all in age when most of the other nations in Europe could boast no artistically demanding poetry forms written in their national languages.

15 P R O G L A S Today it is necessary to underline that inventing the Old Slavonic script was not only a cultural milestone. It was also a spiritual and a truly Christian act. The first books that were translated into Old Slavonic were the Holy Scriptures and liturgical books. Other books, dealing for example with law and other topics, were written only later. And the first work of art, the wonderful poem ”Proglas“, was again directly connected with faith. The foremost task of the new script was to serve the faith and Christian life. This is what Emperor Michael said to prince Rastislav in ”The life of Constantine“: ”Try ... from the bottom of your heart ... to search for God ... encourage everyone to walk on the way of truth ... so that you too will accept the reward in this and in your future life for all souls that will accept Christ ... in that way you will be remembered like the great Caesar Constantine ...“ The word of the Gospels was our spiritual treasure from the beginning. Even if, on our territory, it was used in liturgy only scantily, it survived as a part of church and folk songs, proverbs, sayings and folk stories. Today we ask ourselves how could Constantine write such a truthful and impressive poem as ”Proglas“, or the Foreword to the Gospels? Fra Angelico is believed to have said : ”Who wants to paint Christ must live with Him ...“ Constantine lived what he said in ”Proglas“-he lived the Gospels and he lived with Jesus Christ. In ”The Life of Constantine“ we read about his fruitful mission in the land of the Khazars: ”When Kaghan said farewell to the Philosopher, he gave him many gifts. But he did not accept them and said: Give me all the Greeks you captured, that will be the most precious gift. They gave him two hundred of them. Satisfied he went on his way.“ Such an act of love was quite unique in those times. This was the novelty that the Gospels brought about. The author of ”Proglas“ lived in their spirit. Not only his words, but his whole life spoke of Christ. A similar act of Christian love testifies to the beauty of his soul and of his personality. This is how ”The life of Constantine“ describes his visit to Kocel, son of the Prince Pribina: ”Kocel liked Slavonic books very much, learned them and chose fifty disciples to be taught them too. He honoured Constantine in many ways and then bade him farewell. And Constantine took no gold, no silver nor anything from Kocel or Rastislav for his teaching, but asked for 900 prisoners and then let them go.“ This is the spirit of ”Proglas“. This is the Christian love and forgiving that the Church through the faithful ones taught both with words and with actions. In our and in every other country the words of ”Proglas“ have lost nothing of their power: ”Christ comes to gather the nations for He is the Light of this world ...“ These words written sometime after 863 found their echo in the words of St Peter’s successor, John Paul II when he said to the youth of Slovakia during his visit in 1995:

17 P R O G L A S ”My dear boys and girls ... Christ, son of God and our redeemer fully responds to the purest desires of human heart. He is come so that we“ might have life and that might have it more abundantly.“ (John 10,10) He has ”the words of eternal life“ (John 6,68). He is ”the way , the truth, and the life.“ (John 14,6) Proglas tells us: ”Hear! Listen to the voice of your reason hear you, the whole Slovien nation hear the Word, sent by the Lord Word that feeds hungry human souls ... ... likewise withers the soul. when it lives not the way of God, when it hears not the Word of God. ...Verily I say unto you, Slovienes this gift is indeed a gift from God ... Matthew and Mark, Luke and John teach all the nations ...“ The same words could be heard from Peter’s successor in Nitra, where the first Christian temple was founded in 828 and first dioceses in 880. ”Dear friends, contemplate the priceless value of God’s gift. Since the times of St Cyril and Methodius it has been cherished by generations of your forefathers. Accept it in freedom that recognises responsibilities and cultivate it further.“ Pope John Paul II made in Apostolic letter of 31st December 1980 SS Cyril and Methodius co-patrons of Europe-together with St. Benedict. Since that time Constantine the Philosopher has been rediscovered and is more vividly remembered in Christian Europe and other countries. While some historians may have doubts about who was the real author of ”Proglas“, many take it for certain that Constantine was the spiritual father of this poem that reflects his spirit, his heart, his education, his poetic talents, his apostolic zeal, and his figurative language. The figures of speech and images of ”Proglas“ are the same as were used during the mission in the land of the Khazars, his disputes in Venice and are remind us of his typical phrases, such as ”to write on water“ etc. Through his ”Proglas“ Constantine is alive, here in Slovakia, in Europe and in the whole world. Even today, his words have lost nothing of their power. Christ comes to gather the nations, ... he has been gathering them for centuries even though people, his own people stood in his way. He wants to gather the nations in love and understanding, even if we still most of the time stand in his way. So we live in hope and we live in misery, we live in misery and we live in hope. The words of ”Proglas“ that describe the soul that is dead without books find a special echo in Slovakia, where we experienced a great persecution of Christ’s followers. Jails, gulags and, before that, gas chambers-souls without the law of God were not only dead, but were wretched as well. How many dead souls are in the world and in Europe today? This is a thought that makes one shudder ... Christ is left on Golgotha. He, the Way, the Truth, the Life is exiled far from Bethlehem. What animosity some people show him ... One of our poets said: trees and

18 K O N ‰ T A N T Í N F I L O Z O F Walls everywhere are trembling with horror. It is as if Herod had come to life again ... who will gather the nations if not Christ, the Truth and the Life? What will happen to us if we expel Him? Another poet cried out: ”O Lord, do not depart from Europe!“ Slovakia might be unique among the nations of Europe and the world for it carries in its state insignia the cross and the Preamble to the Constitution refers to the truths of Christianity, to traditions of SS Cyril and Methodius and to values of life. Now that we have achieved liberty in the Slovak republic, we often stand looking around and ask, what we are to do, whom we should follow and trust. Is that necessary? We have everything we need for a healthy development of our nation. It is only through our work and our common efforts that we can go forward. Our nation has in the span of a thousand years build a manifold and flourishing culture. It grew from the lives of our fathers and mothers, sons and daughters, from their hearts and their souls, from their love and their sacrifices. They drew strength inside and outside the temples from prayers, words of God and his mercy. They lived and grew ”in God’s way“ as it is said in ”Proglas“. This is the way the professors and students of Academia Istropolitana (a university founded in 1465) lived, it is way that was followed by people at the University of Trnava founded in 1635. It was the way of the great spirits of this nation, of people like Bernolák, Holl˘, Mojzes, Kuzmány, ·túr, Sládkoviã, Radlinsk˘, of the generations of our poets and scientists. What about us and our time? Today we and our country too have to grow in God’s way. Our future too lies in ourselves. As one of our poets said, the seed of things to come, of our destiny and future is not growing outside, but inside, it is in individuals, families, nation, in schools and fields, factories and in life. ”Proglas“ says: ”for to the one who will accept these letters Christ himself will reveal his wisdom, your souls too he will strengthen with letters ...“ Slovakia has the chance to be stable, creative and happy. And it has a lot to offer to other nations too. Nitra Castle 15th May 1996

ISKONI BIE SLOVO I SLOVO BIE U BOGA I BOG7 BIE SLOVO NA POâIATKU BOLO SLOVO, A SLOVO BOLO U BOHA A BOH BOL SLOVO EVANJ EL IUM podºa sv. J ána , 1,1

Preklad staroslovienskeho „Proglasu“ do dne‰nej slovenãiny nám ponúka básnik a majster slova Viliam Turãány, ktor˘ popri vlastn˘ch básnick˘ch zbierkach a vedeck˘ch prácach obohatil na‰u kultúru aj neuveriteºne vzácnym prekladom mohutného diela „BoÏská komédia“ od Danteho. Aj toto dielo bolo a zostáva ovocím viery v Slovo, ovocím evanjelia. Teraz máme v rukách jeho preklad Proglasu. Z listu Jána Chryzostoma kardinála Korca Nitra, 16. mája 1996 The translation of Proglas into modern Slovak was created by the excellent translator and poet W. Turãány. Apart from his own works of poetry and many scientific studies Turãány enriched Slovak culture by his outstanding translation of Dante’s magnificent masterpiece ”Divine Comedy“. This work of art also was and is a fruit of the faith in the Word, a fruit of the Gospels. Now we can enjoy his translation of ”Proglas“. from the letter of Ján Chryzostom Cardinal Korec Nitra, 16th May 1996 20 K O N ‰ T A N T Í N F I L O Z O F

21 P R O G L A S Evanjeliu svätému som Predslovom: ako nám dávno sºubovali proroci, prichádza Kristus zhromaÏìovaÈ národy, pretoÏe svieti svetlom svetu celému. To v na‰om siedmom tisícroãí stalo sa. Kon‰ tant ín F i l ozof . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PROGLAS 5 Proglas7 jesm6 sveNtu jevangel6ju: Jako proroci prorekli soNt7 prieÏde, Christ7 greNdet7 s7b6rat7 jeNzyk7, Sviet7 bo jest7 v6semu miru semu. Se s7byst7 seN v7 sedmyi viek7 s6. 5 5 To the holy Gospels I am the Foreword for as it was promised by the prophets Christ comes to gather the nations for he sheds light on the world entire. That is what happened in our seventh millennium

22 K O N ‰ T A N T Í N F I L O Z O F 10 10 Bo slep˘m oni sºúbili, Ïe uvidia, a hluchí, ajhºa, Slovo Písma poãujú, lebo je Boha poznaÈ totiÏ potrebné. A preto ãujte, ãujte toto, Slovieni: dar tento drah˘ vám Boh z lásky daroval, 10 Rie‰eN bo oni: sliepii proz6reNt7, glusi sly‰eNt7 Slovo buk7v6noje, Boga Ïe ubo poznati dostoit7. Togo Ïe radi sly‰ite, Sloviene, s6: Dar7 bo jest7 ot7 Boga s6 dan7, As the promise was unto the blind to see and unto the deaf to hear the Word of the Gospels for man needs to know God. Verily I say unto you, Slovienes this precious gift of God and his love is yours

23 P R O G L A S 15 15 Dar BoÏí darom spravodlivej ãiastky je, dar du‰iam va‰im, ão sa nikdy neskazí, du‰iam t˘ch ºudí, ktorí vìaãne prijmú ho. Matú‰ i Marek s ním a s Luká‰om i Ján národy v‰etky takto uãia, hovoriac: 15 Dar7 boÏii jest7 desnyjeN ãeNsti, Dar7 du‰am7, nikoliÏe t6liejeN, du‰am7 tiem7, jeNÏe i priimoNt7. Mathei, Mar7ko, Luka i Joan7 uãeNt7 v6s6 narod7 glagoljoN‰te: The gift from God, the gift of a right part is a gift to your souls that never perishes a gift to all the souls that accept it with gratitude. Matthew and Mark, Luke and John teach all the nations saying:

24 K O N ‰ T A N T Í N F I L O Z O F 20 20 V‰etci, ão chcete svoje du‰e krásnymi uzrieÈ, a v‰etci po radosti túÏiaci, túÏiaci temno hriechu navÏdy zapudiÈ i sveta tohto hniloby sa pozbaviÈ i rajsk˘ Ïivot pre seba zas objaviÈ 20 Jeliko bo svojich7 du‰6 liepotoN vidit7, ljubite bo radovati seN, griechov6noN Ïe t6moN ot7g7nati I mira sego t6ljoN ot7loÏiti I raiskoje Ïit6je priobriesti All you striving to make your souls beautiful all you, who long to rejoice in your hearts all you, longing to abandon the darkness of sins and cleanse yourselves from the corruption of this world, discover life in Paradise again

25 P R O G L A S 25 25 I horiacemu ohÀu navÏdy uniknúÈ, poãujte, ão vám vlastn˘ rozum hovorí, poãujte v‰etci, cel˘ národ sloviensky, poãujte Slovo, od Boha vám zoslané, Slovo, ão hladné ºudské du‰e nak⁄mi, 25 I izbieÏati ot7 ogni goroN‰ta, Sly‰ite nynie ot7 svojego uma, Sly‰ite SLOVIEN6SK7 narod7 v6s6, Sly‰ite SLOVO, ot7 Boga priide, SLOVO Ïe kr7meN ãlovieã6skyjeN du‰eN, And escape the flames of fire, Hear! Listen to the voice of your reason, Hear you, the whole Slovien nation, Hear the Word, sent by the Lord the Word that feeds hungry human souls,

27 P R O G L A S 30 30 Slovo, ão um aj srdce va‰e posilní, Slovo, ão Boha poznávaÈ vás pripraví. Tak ako radosÈ nezasvitne bez svetla, by oko cel˘ BoÏí svet v Àom uzrelo, bo v‰etko nie je krásne ani zreteºné, 30 Slovo Ïe kriepeN i sr6d6ce i um7, SLOVO se gotovajeN Boga poznati. Jako besvieta radost6 ne boNdet7 oku videN‰tju boÏijoN tvar6 visjoN, n7 v6se ni liepo ni vidimo jest7, The Word that gives power to your mind and heart, the Word that will prepare you to accept the Lord. As there can be no joy without light that shines so we can see the world entire For not everything is clear or beautiful

28 K O N ‰ T A N T Í N F I L O Z O F 35 35 tak ani du‰a, Ïiadna du‰a bez písmen, vedomia nemá o tom BoÏom zákone, zákone kniÏnom, o zákone duchovnom, zákone, cezeÀ BoÏí raj sa zjavuje. Bo ktor˘ sluch, ão hrozn˘ rachot hromov˘ 35 tako i du‰a v6sjaka bez buk7v7 ne s7viedoN‰ti zakona Ïe boÏ6ja, zakona k7niÏ6na i duchov6na, zakona rai boÏii javljajoN‰ta. Kyi bo sluch7 grom6najego toNt6na So no soul, no soul without letters knows the law of God, the law of the book, the law of the spirit, the law through which we are led to God’s Paradise. For how can an ear that does not hear the roar of thunder

29 P R O G L A S 40 40 neoãuje, stáÈ bude v bázni pred Pánom? Bo tak˘ ãuch, ão vôÀu kvetu nevníma, akoÏe môÏe zázrak BoÏí pochopiÈ? Bo také ústa, ktoré sladkosÈ necítia, ãloveka ãinia, akoby bol z kameÀa. 40 ne sly‰eN, Boga moÏet7 bojati seN ? Nozdri Ïe paky, cvieta ne oNchajoN‰ti, kako boÏ6je ãudo razumiejete ? Usta bo, jaÏe slad7ka ne ãujoNt7, jako kamiena tvoreNt7 Ïe ãlovieka. Stand in fear in front of God? For how can a sense that does not perceive the smell of flowers understand the Divine Miracle? For the mouth that does not feel sweetness turns a man into a stone.

30 K O N ‰ T A N T Í N F I L O Z O F 45 45 A e‰te väã‰mi od ãloveka z kameÀa je m⁄tva du‰a, kaÏdá du‰a bez písmen. No Ïe, my bratia, sme to v‰etko zváÏili, znamenitú vám radu teraz povieme, ktorá vás v‰etk˘ch, v‰etk˘ch ºudí pozbaví 45 Paãe Ïe sego du‰a bezbuk7v6na javljajet7 seN v7 ãlovieciech7 mr6tva. Se Ïe v6se, my brat6je, s7mysleN‰te, glagoljem7 s7viet7 podobajoN‰ti, iÏe ãlovieky v6sjeN ot7loNãit7 More dead than a man from stone is a soul, every soul without letters. Brethren we have contemplated this all. We now give you impeccable advice that will free all, all of you

31 P R O G L A S 50 50 Îivota zvieracieho, Ïitia smilného, aby ste s mysºou, s nerozumn˘m rozumom, keì poãujete Slovo v cudzom jazyku, neãuli v Àom znieÈ iba zvon, zvon meden˘. Bo svät˘ Pavol uãiteº nám hovorí, 50 ot7 Ïit6ja skot6ska i pochoti, da ne imoN‰te um7 nerazum6n7 tuÏdem6 jeNzykom6 sly‰eN‰te Slovo jako mied6na zvona glas7 sly‰ite. Se bo sveNtyi Pav6l7 uãeN reãe From a beastly life and a sinful existence so that when your reason, your unreasonable reason hears the Word in a foreign tongue you will not hear the sound of the bell only, the bell made of copper. For St Paul our teacher said,

32 K O N ‰ T A N T Í N F I L O Z O F 55 55 keì najprv k Bohu svoju prosbu predniesol: Chcem rad‰ej iba pätoro slov povedaÈ, rozumom prost˘m chcem t˘ch päÈ slov vyrieknuÈ, aby aj bratia v‰etko porozumeli, neÏ nezrozumiteºn˘ch slov riecÈ tisíce. 55 molitvoN svojoN v7zdajeN prieÏde Bogu: jako cho‰tjoN sloves7 peNt6 izdre‰ti, s7 razumom6 svoim6 glagolati, da i v6se brat6ja razumiejoNt7, neÏe t6moN sloves7 nerazum6n7. After he brought his plea to the Lord: I would rather speak just five words five words from my simple understanding that my brethren would understand than speak thousands of them incomprehensible.

33 P R O G L A S 60 60 pretoÏe ãlovek ten, ão nerozumie sám, ão nedoloÏí podobenstva múdreho, ako by mohol pravú reã nám povedaÈ? PretoÏe ako zhuba visí nad telom v‰ehubiaca a nad hnis väã‰mi hnijúca, 60 Kyi bo ãloviek7 ne razumiejet7, kyi ne proloÏit7 prit7ãeN moNdry, s7kazajoN‰teN besiedy pravy nam7 ? Jako bo t6lja pl7t6ch7 nastoit7 v6se t6leN‰ti, paãe gnoja gnojeN‰ti, For how could a man who himself does not understand, unable to add a wise parable, find the right words? For as decay looms over the body all-destroying and more putrid than pus,

34 K O N ‰ T A N T Í N F I L O Z O F 65 65 keì telo nemá patriãného pokrmu: práve tak isto kaÏdá du‰a upadá v Ïití, keì Ïije bez BoÏieho Ïivota, keì nepoãuje nikde Slova BoÏieho. Iné v‰ak e‰te podobenstvo premúdre 65 jegda svojego bra‰6na ne imat7, tako du‰a v6sjaka opadajet7 Ïizni, boÏ6ja ne imoN‰te Ïivota, jegda slovese boÏ6ja ne sly‰it7. InoN Ïe paky prit7ãjoN moNdroN dzielo When the body is ill-nourished likewise withers every soul, when it lives not the way of God, when it hears not the Word of God. Let us add another wise parable:

35 P R O G L A S 70 70 Povedzme, ºudia, ºúbiaci sa vospolok, túÏiaci BoÏím rastom rásÈ uÏ odteraz; bo kto by túto prostú pravdu nevedel: tak ako semä, ktoré padlo na nivu, tak isto kaÏdé ºudské srdce na zemi 70 da glagoljem7, ãlovieci, ljubeN‰te seN, choteN‰te rasti boÏ6jem6 rastom6, k7to bo viery sejeN ne viest7 pravy, jako siemeni padajoN‰tju na nivie, tako na sr6d6cich7 ãlovieã6sciech7, We who live in mutual love and concord and now long to grow in God’s way who could ignore this truth so simple: As the seed that fell into the soil so every human heart on earth

36 K O N ‰ T A N T Í N F I L O Z O F 75 75 dáÏì BoÏích písmen potrebuje pre seba, aby plod BoÏí vzrástol v Àom ão najväã‰mi. Kto môÏe v‰etky podobenstvá povedaÈ, ão národ bez kníh obÏalujú, usvedãia, Ïe nehovorí hlasom zrozumiteºn˘m? 75 d7Ïd6 boÏii buk7v7 triebujoN‰te, da v7zdrastet7 plod7 boÏii paãe. K7to moÏet7 prit7ãeN v6sjeN re‰ti, obliãajoN‰te bes k7nig7 jeNzyky, v7 glasie s7mysl6nie ne glagoljoN‰te ? Needs the rain of God’s letters so that God’s fruit will grow to its fullest. Who could count all the fables that rebuke a nation without books, that prove that its voice is not to be understood?

37 P R O G L A S 80 80 Veì ão by ten muÏ poznal v‰etky jazyky, nevyslovil by bezmedznú ich bezmocnosÈ. Predsa v‰ak svoje podobenstvo prikladám, v˘znamu mnoho v málo slovách hovoriac: Lebo sú bez kníh nahé v‰etky národy, 80 Ni a‰te umiejet7 jeNzyky visjeN, MoÏet7 s7kazati nemo‰t6 sich7. Obaãe svojoN prit7ãjoN da pristavljoN, m7nog7 um7 v7 malie rieãi kaÏeN: Nazi bo v6si bes k7nig7 jeNzyci Even if this man knew all the tongues he could not spell out their infinite helplessness. Yet hear my parable, much meaning in few words expressed: Naked are nations without books

38 K O N ‰ T A N T Í N F I L O Z O F 85 85 bo nemôÏu sa boriÈ v boji bez zbroje s protivníkom a du‰í na‰ich záhubcom, odsúdené sú veãnej muke za korisÈ. Ktorí v‰ak nepriateºa nemilujete, národy, ão s ním veºmi chcete boriÈ sa, 85 brati seN ne mogoN‰te bez oroNÏ6ja s7 protiv6nikom6 du‰6 na‰ich7 gotovi moNky vieã6nyjeN v7 plien7. IÏe bo vraga, jeNzyci, ne ljubite, brati Ïe seN s7 nim6 mysleN‰te dzielo, They cannot fight without a weapon against the enemy, who destroys our souls doomed to fall prey to eternal damnation. You, who do not love this enemy, the nations who long to fight him

39 P R O G L A S 90 90 Otvorte dvere ducha svojho pozorne, zbroj tvrdú teraz prijímajte, národy, kovanú krásne v knihách Hospodinov˘ch, ktoré tak tvrdo mliaÏdia hlavu diablovu. Lebo kto totiÏ prijme tieto písmená, 90 ot7vr6ziete prileÏ6no umu dv6ri, oroNÏ6je priim7‰e tvr6do nynie, jeÏe kujoNt7 k7nigy Gospod6njeN, glavoN t6roN‰te nepr6jazni vel6mi. Buk7vi sijeN, iÏe bo priimet7, Open the gates of your minds, carefully accept these weapons beautifully constructed in the books of the Lord that harshly bruise the head of the devil. For to the one who will accept these letters

40 K O N ‰ T A N T Í N F I L O Z O F 95 95 tomu sám Kristus svoju múdrosÈ vyjaví a va‰e du‰e písmenami posilní i skrze apo‰tolov, skrze prorokov. PretoÏe tí, ão hovoria ich slovami, i nepriateºa budú schopní zahubiÈ, 95 moNdrost6 tomu Christos7 glagoljet7 i du‰eN va‰eN buk7vami kriepit7 apostoly Ïe s7 proroky v6siemi. IÏe bo sich7 slovesa glagoljoN‰te podob6ni boNdoNt7 vraga ubiti Christ himself will reveal his wisdom. Your souls, too, he will strengthen with letters and through the prophets and the apostles. For those who will use their words will be able to destroy the enemy,

41 P R O G L A S 100 100 víÈazstvo dobré svojmu Bohu prinesú, hnilobnej zhube svojho tela uniknú, tela, ão v hriechu ako vo sne Ïivorí, nepadnú oni, ale pevne zastanú, pred Bohom ako udatní sa prejavia, 100 pobiedoN prinoseN‰te k7 Bogu dobroN, pl7ti bieÏeN‰te t6ljeN gnojev6nyjeN, pl7ti, jejeNÏe Ïivot7 jako v7 s7nie, ne padajoN‰te, kriep7ko Ïe stojeN‰te, k7 Bogu javl6‰e seN jako chrab7ri, They will bring good victory to their Lord, escape the doom and decay of their bodies, bodies that live in sin as in a dream. They will not fall, they will stand strong and valiant in front of the Lord,

42 K O N ‰ T A N T Í N F I L O Z O F 105 105 po pravici si stanú trónu BoÏiemu, keì príde ohÀom súdiÈ v‰etky národy, s anjelmi budú radovaÈ sa naveky, naveky sláviac Boha milostivého, piesÀami z t˘ch kníh ospevujúc naveky 105 StojeN‰te o desnoNjoN boÏ6ja priestola, jegda ogn6m6 soNdit7 jeNzykom7, radujoN‰te seN s7 angely v7 vieky, prisno slaveN‰te Bog7 milostivyi k7niÏ6nami v6segda Ïe piesn6mi They will stand on the right hand of God when he comes to judge the nations with fire. Forever they will join the angels in their joy celebrating God all merciful forever with songs from these books.

43 P R O G L A S 110 110 Svojho Boha, ão nad ºuìmi sa zmilúva, ktorému preto v‰etka sláva prislúcha, i ãesÈ i chvála, BoÏí Synu, v jednote so svojím Otcom, s Duchom Svät˘m v trojici na veky vekov od kaÏdého stvorenia. Amen. 110 Bogu pojoN‰te ãlovieky milujoN‰tju. Tomu podobajet7 v6sjaka slava, ã6st6 i chvala, BoÏii Synu, vynoN s7 Ot6cem6 i SveNtyim6 Duchom6 v7 vieky viek7 ot7 v6sejeN tvari. Amin7. They will celebrate their God who has mercy on the people to whom all glory is given. Honour and praise, Son of God, united with your Father and the Holy Spirit in one Trinity from all beings for ever and ever Amen.

44 K O N ‰ T A N T Í N F I L O Z O F T E N , K T OR¯ S TÁ L E M I L O VA L MÚ DRO S Ë KON·TANTÍN FILOZOF (827– 869), známej‰í u nás pod menom sv. CYRIL, je autorom prvej slovenskej a slovanskej básne vôbec, nazvanej PROGLAS podºa jej prvého slova, znamenajúceho predslov: „PROGLAS7 jesm6 sventu jevange16ju“ (hláska, oznaãená sedmiãkou, sa volá tvrd˘ jer a vysloví sa ako slabé „u“; hláska, oznaãená ‰estkou, tzv. mäkk˘ jer, sa vysloví ako slabé „i“), ãiÏe „Evanjeliu svätému som PREDSLOVOM“. Kon‰tantín sa narodil roku 827 v meste SOLÚN (po grécky Thessaloniké, dnes Saloniki) ako najmlad‰í zo siedmich detí. S oveºa star‰ím bratom Metodom pri‰iel roku 863 na územie na‰ich predkov k panovníkovi Rastislavovi, ktor˘ od byzantského cisára Michala III. Ïiadal uãiteºa, schopného úspe‰ne ‰íriÈ kresÈanstvo a vzdelanosÈ v reãi zrozumiteºnej Veºkomoravanom. To v cudzej reãi nemohli dosiahnuÈ kÀazi z Rí‰e v˘chodofranskej, ktor˘ch na‰i predkovia nazvali NEMCAMI preto, Ïe – hoci títo kÀazi hovorili – pre nich vlastne boli NEMÍ. Sloviensky ºud im nerozumel. Niekedy v rozpätí rokov 863-867, teda po dokonãení prekladu celého evanjelia u nás a pred odchodom do Ríma, utvoril Kon‰tantín Filozof skutoãn˘ básnick˘ klenot, ktor˘ nemá obdobu v súdob˘ch európskych literatúrach, najmä v tej ich ãasti, ktorá bola písaná uÏ v národn˘ch jazykoch, nie v latinãine. Najstar‰ia románska ver‰ovaná pamiatka, tzv. INDOVINELLO VERONESE (Veronská hádanka) je síce o dobré polstoroãie star‰ia, ale obsahuje iba jediné r˘mované ‰tvorver‰ie. Naproti tomu PROGLAS sa skladá zo 110 ver‰ov, v absolútnej väã‰ine dvanásÈslabiãn˘ch a ner˘movan˘ch, s polver‰ovou prestávkouprevaÏne po piatej, zriedkavej‰ie po siedmej slabike: piatou(ak nie Àou, tak siedmou) slabikou ver‰a sa muselo jedno slovo konãiÈ a ìal‰ie za Àou zaãínaÈ. Túto vlastnosÈ originálu zachováva i na‰e prebásnenie. Ver‰e Proglasu napodobÀujú tzv. TRIMETER JAMBICK¯, v akom sa skladali antické grécke drámy, napríklad Sofoklov VLÁDCA OIDIPUS. Preto sa tento ver‰ naz˘val i ver‰omdramatick˘m. Stojedenástym ver‰om Proglasu je iba jediné slovo AM6n7 (Amen), znamenajúce „Nech je tak“. PripomeÀme e‰te, Ïe „hádankovit˘“ piaty ver‰ „TO V NA·OM SIEDMOM TISÍCROâÍ STALO SA“ je datovaním prekladu evanjelia i vzniku básne. Podºa byzantského letopoãtu sa totiÏ od stvorenia sveta po narodenie Krista rátalo 5.508 rokov; ak pripoãítame k tomu 863 rokov (príchod sv. Cyrila a Metoda k nám), dostaneme 6.371 rokov, ãiÏe „siedme tisícroãie“. Kon‰tantín Filozof bol vynikajúcim znalcom starej i novej gréckej poézie (Homéra i Gregora Naziánskeho a ìal‰ích básnikov). Patril k najväã‰ím vzdelancom v celom v˘chodorímskom cisárstve, ‰tudoval a neskôr i predná‰al na najstar‰ej univerzite sveta, zaloÏenej e‰te roku 425 cisárom Theodosiom II. v Kon‰tantínopole, ãiÏe v Carihrade (v dne‰nom Istambule). Kon‰tantín ako ‰estnásÈroãn˘ premohol v di‰pute starého „obrazoboreckého“ patriarchu Jannesa, hlásajúceho, Ïe obrazy Boha a svät˘ch sa nemajú uctievaÈ. Nie náhodou uÏ vtedy mal Kon‰tantín prímenie „FILOZOF“. TotiÏ v gréãtine „FILO-SOFIA“ znamená „LÁSKU K MÚDROSTI“. Filozof je teda ten, kto „MILUJE MÚDROSË“. A Kon‰tantín k Múdrosti zahorel láskou uÏ oveºa skôr: „Keì malo dieÈa sedem rokov, sníval sa mu sen. Rozprávalo ho otcovi a matke, hovoriac: Stratég zhromaÏdil v‰etky devy ná‰ho mesta a povedal mi: Vi l i am Turãány

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